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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 1, 2022
Registration No. 333-     
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Century Therapeutics, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
84-2040295
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
3675 Market Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (267) 817-5790
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
Osvaldo Flores, Ph.D.
President and Chief Executive Officer
Century Therapeutics, Inc.
3675 Market Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104
(267) 817-5790
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Rachael M. Bushey, Esq.
Jennifer L. Porter, Esq.
Troutman Pepper Hamilton Sanders LLP
3000 Two Logan Square
Eighteenth and Arch Streets
Philadelphia, PA 19103
(215) 981-4000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.   ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.   ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.   ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.   ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.   ☐
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

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EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $500,000,000 in the aggregate of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities; and

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $150,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement dated July 1, 2022 with Cowen and Company, LLC.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC, any portion of the $150,000,000 included in the sales agreement offering prospectus that remains unsold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $150,000,000 of securities not sold may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.
 

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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
PROSPECTUS Subject to Completion, dated July 1, 2022.
$500,000,000
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_centurytherapeutics-4c.jpg]
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
Subscription Rights
We may offer and sell up to $500,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings, separately or together in any combination, in one or more classes or series, in amounts, at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any such offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.
Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.
We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.
We are an emerging growth company and a smaller reporting company as defined under federal securities laws and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for future filings.
INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 8 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT OR IN ANY DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE HEREIN AND THEREIN CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “IPSC.” On June 30, 2022, the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq was $8.40 per share.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is           , 2022.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time in any combination and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $500,000,000 as described in this prospectus.
This prospectus provides you only with a general description of the securities that we may offer. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference herein and therein is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
When we refer to “Century,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Century Therapeutics, Inc., and its wholly owned subsidiary unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable series of securities.
“Century Therapeutics” the “Century Therapeutics” logo, and other trademarks, trade names, or service marks of Century Therapeutics, Inc. appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus are the property of Century Therapeutics, Inc. All other trademarks, trade names, and service marks appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus may be referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert their rights thereto.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 filed with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated herein by reference for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document.
We are currently subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and in accordance therewith file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to you on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov and in the “Investors” section of our website at www.centurytx.com. Our website and the information contained on that site, or connected to that site, are not incorporated into and are not a part of this prospectus.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC:

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on March 17, 2022;

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on May 16, 2022;

The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Form DEF 14-A, filed on April 21, 2022;

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 10, 2022, January 13, 2022, April 13, 2022, May 10, 2022 and June 10, 2022 (in each case other than any portions thereof deemed furnished and not filed); and

The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001- 40498) filed with the SEC on June 14, 2021, under the Exchange Act, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than any filings or portions of such reports that are not deemed “filed” under the Exchange Act in accordance with the Exchange Act and applicable SEC rules, including current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits furnished on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus, and will become a part of this prospectus from the date that such documents are filed with the SEC. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be
 
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incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later filed document modify or replace such earlier statements.
We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including exhibits to these documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Century Therapeutics, Inc., Attn: Corporate Secretary, 3675 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, about us and our subsidiary. These forward-looking statements are intended to be covered by the safe harbor for forward-looking statements provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are not statements of historical fact, and can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “potential,” “seek,” “evaluate,” “pursue,” “continue,” “design,” “impact,” “affect,” “forecast,” “target,” “outlook,” “initiative,” “objective,” “designed,” “priorities,” “goal,” or the negative thereof or comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning:

our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations and continue the development of our current and future product candidates;

the preclinical nature of our business and our ability to successfully advance our current and future product candidates through development activities, preclinical studies, and clinical trials;

our ability to generate revenue from future product sales and our ability to achieve and maintain profitability;

the accuracy of our projections and estimates regarding our expenses, capital requirements, cash utilization, and need for additional financing;

the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variants of COVID‑19, and measures taken to contain its spread ultimately impact our business, including development activities, preclinical studies, future clinical trials, supply chain and labor force;

our dependence on the success of our product candidates, in particular CNTY-101, CNTY-103, and CNTY-102;

the novelty of our approach to immuno-oncology treatment of cancer, utilizing iPSC-derived natural killer cells, or iNK cells, and iPSC-derived T cells, or iT cells, and the challenges we will face due to the novel nature of such technology;

the success of competing therapies that are or become available;

our reliance on the maintenance of our collaborative relationship with FUJIFILM Cellular Dynamics Inc., or FCDI, for access to key differentiation and reprogramming technology for the manufacturing and development of our product candidates;

the initiation, progress, success, cost, and timing of our development activities, preclinical studies and future clinical trials;

the timing of our future investigational new drug, or IND, applications and the likelihood of, and our ability to obtain and maintain, regulatory clearance of such IND applications for our product candidates;

the timing, scope and likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including final regulatory approval of our product candidates;

our reliance on FCDI to be the exclusive manufacturer of certain product candidates, and our ability to manufacture our own product candidates in the future, and the timing and costs of such manufacturing activities;

our reliance on the maintenance of our collaborative relationship with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or Bristol-Myers Squibb, in connection with the furtherance of our collaboration programs;

the performance of third parties in connection with the development of our product candidates, including third parties conducting our future clinical trials as well as third-party suppliers and manufacturers;
 
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our ability to attract and retain strategic collaborators with development, regulatory, and commercialization expertise;

the public opinion and scrutiny of cell-based immuno-oncology therapies for treating cancer and its potential impact on public perception of our company and product candidates;

our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and develop sales and marketing capabilities, if our product candidates are approved;

the size and growth of the potential markets for our product candidates and our ability to serve those markets;

regulatory developments and approval pathways in the United States and foreign countries for our product candidates;

the potential scope and value of our intellectual property and proprietary rights;

our ability, and the ability of our licensors, to obtain, maintain, defend, and enforce intellectual property and proprietary rights protecting our product candidates, and our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates without infringing, misappropriating, or otherwise violating the intellectual property or proprietary rights of third parties;

our ability to recruit and retain key members of management and other clinical and scientific personnel;

the volatility of capital markets and other macroeconomic factors, including due to geopolitical tensions or the outbreak of hostilities or war;

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and

other risks and uncertainties, including those described under the caption “Risk factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as such risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by our subsequent periodic reports we file with the SEC.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, and financial needs. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance, or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur at all. You should refer to the section titled “Risk factors” this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the documents we incorporate by reference herein and therein for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in this prospectus by these cautionary statements.
 
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ABOUT THE COMPANY
Overview
We are an innovative biotechnology company developing transformative allogeneic cell therapies to create products for the treatment of both solid tumor and hematological malignancies with significant unmet medical need. We have created a comprehensive allogeneic cell therapy platform that includes industry-leading induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs, differentiation know-how to generate immune effector cells from iPSCs, or iPSC- derived cells, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, or CRISPR, mediated precision gene editing that allows us to incorporate multiple transgenes and remove target genes intended to optimize cell product performance, sophisticated protein engineering capabilities to develop proprietary next generation chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs, our proprietary Allo-Evasion™ technology intended to prevent rejection of our cell products by the host immune system, and cutting edge manufacturing capabilities intended to minimize product development and supply risk. We believe that these vertically integrated capabilities will allow us to further expand our existing pipeline and develop therapeutics from iPSC-derived natural killer cells, or iNK cells, or iNK, and iPSC-derived T cells, or iT cells, or iT, that may provide enhanced clinical outcomes compared to available therapeutic options. Our vision is to become a premier fully integrated biotechnology company by developing and ultimately commercializing off-the-shelf allogeneic cell therapies that dramatically and positively transform the lives of patients suffering from life-threatening cancers. To achieve our vision, we have assembled a world-class team whose members collectively have decades of experience in cell therapy and drug development, manufacturing, and commercialization.
The field of cell therapy is rapidly evolving, with autologous and allogeneic technologies demonstrating the strong potential of this therapeutic modality. We believe that our industry leading, end-to-end iPSC-derived allogeneic cell therapy platform will allow us to overcome technical and biological limitations of other donor- derived cell therapies. The unlimited replication capacity of iPSCs allows us to incorporate multiple genetic modifications at precise sites, or loci, in the genome of iPSCs that are designed to improve cell function using a CRISPR-mediated approach targeting a DNA repair pathway called homology directed repair, or HDR. The precision of our CRISPR-HDR gene editing technology and clonal selection eliminates random integration events and allows more controlled expression of transgenes of interest compared to other gene editing methodologies. The self- renewal capacity of iPSCs also enables the generation of master cell banks derived from single genetically engineered clones thus allowing the implementation of cost-efficient manufacturing of drug product that can be made available on demand at any clinical site. We have assembled a unique and powerful combination of technologies that bring together a preeminent iPSC-derived allogeneic cell therapy platform with highly advanced cell engineering and manufacturing capabilities. We believe this unique combination puts us in a position to change the oncology treatment paradigm and market.
Corporate Information
Our primary executive offices are located at 3675 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, and our telephone number is (267) 817-5790. Our corporate website is www.centurytx.com. The information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and Smaller Reporting Company
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the Jobs Act. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) December 31, 2026, (2) the beginning of the first fiscal year after our annual gross revenue is $1.07 billion or more, (3) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities and (4) as of the end of any fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year.
For as long as we remain an “emerging growth company,” we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not “emerging
 
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growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and financial statements in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote to approve executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”
The JOBS Act provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption and, therefore, we are subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.”
We are also a “smaller reporting company,” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. We will remain a smaller reporting company until the last day of the fiscal year in which (i) the market value of our common stock held by non affiliates exceeds $250 million as of the end of that year’s second fiscal quarter, or (ii) our annual revenues exceeded $100 million during such completed fiscal year and the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of that year’s second fiscal quarter. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. Specifically, as a smaller reporting company we may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and, similar to emerging growth companies, smaller reporting companies have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in any of our securities involves significant risks. Before making an investment decision, in addition to the other information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should carefully consider the specific risks set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC, as such risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC, including subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and the risk factors described under the caption “Risk Factors” in any applicable prospectus supplement. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, results of operations and financial condition could suffer. In that case, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently believe are immaterial, may also adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition and the value of an investment in our securities. In addition, past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our capital stock is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. This description is summarized from, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which has been publicly filed with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information.” For a complete description, you should refer to our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, copies of which are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Common Stock
Under our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our Certificate of Incorporation, our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of March 31, 2022, we had 57,586,030 shares of common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.
Voting.   Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of holders of two-thirds of the voting power of all of the then outstanding voting stock will be required to take certain actions, including amending certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation, such as the provisions relating to amending our amended and restated bylaws, procedures for our stockholder meetings, the classified board, director liability, and exclusive forum for proceedings.
Dividends.   Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.
Liquidation and Dissolution.   In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.
Other Rights and Restrictions.   Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designated in the future.
Listing.   Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “IPSC.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar.   The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.
Preferred Stock
The authorized shares of preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders unless required by law or by the rules and regulations of any stock exchange on which our common stock may be listed. Our Certificate of Incorporation authorizes our board of directors to establish, from time to time, the number of shares to be included in each series of preferred stock, and to fix the designation, powers, privileges, preferences, and relative participating, optional or other rights, if any, of the shares of each series of preferred stock, and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors is authorized to increase or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series of preferred stock then outstanding, without any further vote or action by the stockholders.
The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In
 
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addition, the existence of unissued and unreserved common stock or preferred stock may enable our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, which could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and could thereby protect the continuity of our management and possibly deprive stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.
Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Charter Documents
Some provisions of Delaware law and our Certificate of Incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could make the following transactions more difficult: acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions that might result in a premium over the market price for our shares.
These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.   We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, which prohibits persons deemed “interested stockholders” from engaging in a “business combination” with a publicly-held Delaware corporation for three years following the date these persons become interested stockholders unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset, or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The existence of this provision may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by the board of directors, such as discouraging takeover attempts that might result in a premium over the market price of our common stock.
Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent.   Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that all stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and not by consent in writing. A special meeting of stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chair of our board of directors, or our chief executive officer.
Undesignated Preferred Stock.   The ability to authorize undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.
Amendment of Charter Provisions.   Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2∕3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of voting stock, voting as a single class, will be required to amend certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation, including provisions relating to the size of the board, removal of directors, special meetings, actions by written consent, and cumulative voting. The affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2∕3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of voting stock, voting as a single class, will be required to amend or repeal our amended and restated bylaws unless such action is recommended by our board of directors at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, which would then require the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of voting stock,
 
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voting as a single class. Additionally, our amended and restated bylaws may be amended by a simple majority vote of our board of directors.
Classified Board; Election and Removal of Directors.   Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that our board of directors is divided into three classes, Class I, Class II, and Class III, with each class serving staggered terms, and will give our board of directors the exclusive right to expand the size of our board of directors and to elect directors to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death, or removal of a director.
Choice of Forum.   Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, another state court located within the State of Delaware or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer, stockholder, employee, or agent of ours to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our Certificate of Incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws (in each case, as may be amended from time to time), (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware, or (v) any other action asserting an “internal corporate claim,” as defined in Section 115 of the DGCL, in all cases subject to the court having personal jurisdiction over all indispensable parties named as defendants.
Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. In addition, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or any other claim for which the federal and state courts have concurrent jurisdiction.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.
We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.
The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a third party to be identified therein, as trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.
As used in this section only, “Century,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to Century Therapeutics, Inc., excluding its wholly owned subsidiary, unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.
General
The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).
We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be issued in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;
 
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any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities will be made;

if payments of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and

whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.
We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the United States federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Transfer and Exchange
Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company (DTC), or a nominee of DTC (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.
Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.
You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.
Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC, and registered in the name of DTC or a nominee of DTC. Please see “Global Securities.”
Covenants
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.
No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

we are the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than Century) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default (defined as any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default) or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.
Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us.
 
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Events of Default
“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;

default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Century and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Century; or

any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.
We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof.
If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.
The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.
 
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No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.
Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.
The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.
Modification and Waiver
We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;

to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

to comply with the procedures of the applicable depositary;

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee;

to conform the terms of the indenture (insofar as it applies to any series of debt securities issued under the indenture) or the terms of the debt securities of any series issued under the indenture to the description thereof contained in any prospectus, prospectus supplement or similar offering document used in connection with the initial offering and sale of such debt securities to investors in a public or private offering; or
 
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to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.
We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security.
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
Legal Defeasance.   The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.
This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal
 
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Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders and beneficial owners of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants.   The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).
The conditions include:

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders and beneficial owners of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.
No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Securityholders
None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or securityholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the debt securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.
The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.
The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United
 
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States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or of debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.
The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

the designation, stated value and terms (including, without limitation, liquidation, dividend, conversion and voting rights) of the series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of warrants to purchase preferred stock;

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

United States federal income tax consequences applicable to the warrants; and

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.
Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled to:

vote, consent or receive dividends;

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

exercise any rights as our stockholders.
Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of preferred stock or common stock at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holder of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt securities or to enforce covenants
 
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in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the common stock or preferred stock, if any.
As of March 31, 2022, we had outstanding warrants to purchase an aggregate of 32,009 shares of our common stock outstanding with an exercise price of $10.64 per share. These warrants may be exercised at any time and from time to time, in whole or in part.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.
The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.
If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any provisions of the governing unit agreement;

the price or prices at which such units will be issued;

the applicable United States federal income tax considerations relating to the units;

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.
The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to the securities included in each unit, to the extent relevant and as may be updated in any prospectus supplements.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF OUR SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS
As specified in any applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue subscription rights consisting of one or more debt securities, shares of preferred stock, shares of common stock or any combination of such securities.
 
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GLOBAL SECURITIES
Book-Entry, Delivery and Form
Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.
DTC has advised us that it is:

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

a member of the Federal Reserve System;

a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.
Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain
 
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an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.
Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.
Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.
Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.
So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below and unless if otherwise provided in the description of the applicable securities herein or in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.
Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.
Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.
The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.
As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered
 
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under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or

an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities, we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities.
Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.
We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.
Euroclear and Clearstream
If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, you may hold interests in a global security through Clearstream Banking, S.A., which we refer to as “Clearstream,” or Euroclear Bank SA/NV, as operator of the Euroclear System, which we refer to as “Euroclear,” either directly if you are a participant in Clearstream or Euroclear or indirectly through organizations which are participants in Clearstream or Euroclear. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their respective participants through customers’ securities accounts in the names of Clearstream and Euroclear, respectively, on the books of their respective U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in such depositaries’ names on DTC’s books.
Clearstream and Euroclear are securities clearance systems in Europe. Clearstream and Euroclear hold securities for their respective participating organizations and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between those participants through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates.
Payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to beneficial interests in global securities owned through Euroclear or Clearstream must comply with the rules and procedures of those systems. Transactions between participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on one hand, and other participants in DTC, on the other hand, are also subject to DTC’s rules and procedures.
Investors will be able to make and receive through Euroclear and Clearstream payments, deliveries, transfers and other transactions involving any beneficial interests in global securities held through those systems only on days when those systems are open for business. Those systems may not be open for business on days when banks, brokers and other institutions are open for business in the United States.
Cross-market transfers between participants in DTC, on the one hand, and participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with the DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by their respective U.S. depositaries; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the global securities through DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement. Participants in Euroclear or Clearstream may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.
 
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Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream purchasing an interest in a global security from a direct participant in DTC will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant participant in Euroclear or Clearstream, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a global security by or through a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream to a direct participant in DTC will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.
Other
The information in this section of this prospectus concerning DTC, Clearstream, Euroclear and their respective book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we do not take responsibility for this information. This information has been provided solely as a matter of convenience. The rules and procedures of DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear are solely within the control of those organizations and could change at any time. Neither we nor the trustee nor any agent of ours or of the trustee has any control over those entities and none of us takes any responsibility for their activities. You are urged to contact DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants directly to discuss those matters. In addition, although we expect that DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear will perform the foregoing procedures, none of them is under any obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither we nor any agent of ours will have any responsibility for the performance or nonperformance by DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants of these or any other rules or procedures governing their respective operations.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, “at-the-market offerings,” negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to such prevailing market prices;

in “at-the-market offerings” ​(as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act);

at negotiated prices; or

through any method permitted by applicable law and described in a prospectus supplement.
Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us, if applicable.
Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.
If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.
If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.
Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.
Any common stock or preferred stock will be listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange.
To facilitate the offering of securities, and to the extent permitted by and in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the
 
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securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.
To the extent permitted by and in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, any underwriters who are qualified market makers on Nasdaq may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on Nasdaq during the business day prior to the pricing of an offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded.
If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, underwriters or other persons acting as agents may be authorized to solicit offers by institutions or other suitable purchasers to purchase the securities at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement, pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in the prospectus supplement. These purchasers may include, among others, commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions. Delayed delivery contracts will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities covered by the delayed delivery contracts will not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and agents will not have any responsibility with respect to the validity or performance of these contracts.
We may engage in “at-the-market offerings” into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.
The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.
No securities may be sold under this prospectus without delivery, in paper format or in electronic format, or both, of the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Troutman Pepper Hamilton Sanders LLP will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of Century Therapeutics, Inc. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Century Therapeutics, Inc. as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, incorporated by reference in this Prospectus and Registration Statement have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon incorporated by reference herein, and are included in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective.
PROSPECTUSSubject to Completion, dated July 1, 2022
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_centurytherapeutics-4c.jpg]
$150,000,000
Common Stock
We have entered into a sales agreement, or Sales Agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, under this prospectus, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 from time to time through or to Cowen, acting as our agent.
Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “IPSC.” On June 30, 2022, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $8.40 per share.
Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will use commercially reasonable efforts consistent with their normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, on mutually agreed terms between Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
The compensation to Cowen for sales of our common stock sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be equal to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds of any shares of our common stock sold under the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 16 for additional information regarding the compensation payable to Cowen.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, we are eligible for reduced public company reporting requirements. Please see “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus and the “Risk Factors” section contained in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus before investing in our common stock. .
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
Cowen
The date of this prospectus is           , 2022

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.
This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed after the date of this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus to which we have referred you. Neither we nor Cowen take any responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. We are not, and Cowen is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.
When we refer to “Century,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Century Therapeutics, Inc., and its wholly owned subsidiary unless otherwise specified.
“Century Therapeutics” the “Century Therapeutics” logo, and other trademarks, trade names, or service marks of Century Therapeutics, Inc. appearing in this prospectus are the property of Century Therapeutics, Inc. All other trademarks, trade names, and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus may be referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert their rights thereto.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before making an investment decision. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our common stock discussed under “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
Overview
We are an innovative biotechnology company developing transformative allogeneic cell therapies to create products for the treatment of both solid tumor and hematological malignancies with significant unmet medical need. We have created a comprehensive allogeneic cell therapy platform that includes industry-leading induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs, differentiation know-how to generate immune effector cells from iPSCs, or iPSC- derived cells, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, or CRISPR, mediated precision gene editing that allows us to incorporate multiple transgenes and remove target genes intended to optimize cell product performance, sophisticated protein engineering capabilities to develop proprietary next generation chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs, our proprietary Allo-Evasion™ technology intended to prevent rejection of our cell products by the host immune system, and cutting edge manufacturing capabilities intended to minimize product development and supply risk. We believe that these vertically integrated capabilities will allow us to further expand our existing pipeline and develop therapeutics from iPSC-derived natural killer cells, or iNK cells, or iNK, and iPSC-derived T cells, or iT cells, or iT, that may provide enhanced clinical outcomes compared to available therapeutic options. Our vision is to become a premier fully integrated biotechnology company by developing and ultimately commercializing off-the-shelf allogeneic cell therapies that dramatically and positively transform the lives of patients suffering from life-threatening cancers. To achieve our vision, we have assembled a world-class team whose members collectively have decades of experience in cell therapy and drug development, manufacturing, and commercialization.
The field of cell therapy is rapidly evolving, with autologous and allogeneic technologies demonstrating the strong potential of this therapeutic modality. We believe that our industry leading, end-to-end iPSC-derived allogeneic cell therapy platform will allow us to overcome technical and biological limitations of other donor- derived cell therapies. The unlimited replication capacity of iPSCs allows us to incorporate multiple genetic modifications at precise sites, or loci, in the genome of iPSCs that are designed to improve cell function using a CRISPR-mediated approach targeting a DNA repair pathway called homology directed repair, or HDR. The precision of our CRISPR-HDR gene editing technology and clonal selection eliminates random integration events and allows more controlled expression of transgenes of interest compared to other gene editing methodologies. The self- renewal capacity of iPSCs also enables the generation of master cell banks derived from single genetically engineered clones thus allowing the implementation of cost-efficient manufacturing of drug product that can be made available on demand at any clinical site. We have assembled a unique and powerful combination of technologies that bring together a preeminent iPSC-derived allogeneic cell therapy platform with highly advanced cell engineering and manufacturing capabilities. We believe this unique combination puts us in a position to change the oncology treatment paradigm and market.
Corporate Information
Our primary executive offices are located at 3675 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, and our telephone number is (267) 817-5790. Our corporate website is www.centurytx.com. The information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and Smaller Reporting Company
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) December 31, 2026, (2) the beginning of the first fiscal year after our annual gross revenue is $1.07 billion or more,
 
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(3) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities and (4) as of the end of any fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year.
For as long as we remain an “emerging growth company,” we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and financial statements in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote to approve executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”
The JOBS Act provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption and, therefore, we are subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.”
We are also a “smaller reporting company,” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. We will remain a smaller reporting company until the last day of the fiscal year so long as either (i) the market value of our common stock held by non affiliates exceeds $250 million as of the end of that year’s second fiscal quarter, or (ii) our annual revenues exceeded $100 million during such completed fiscal year and the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of that year’s second fiscal quarter. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. Specifically, as a smaller reporting company we may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and, similar to emerging growth companies, smaller reporting companies have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation.
 
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THE OFFERING
Common stock offered by
us
Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000.
Manner of Offering
“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through, at our option, our sales agent, Cowen. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering
75,443,172 shares, assuming the sale of 17,857,142 shares of our common stock in this offering at a price of $8.40 per share, which was the last reported sale price on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2022. The actual number of shares issued and outstanding will vary based on the sales price of our common stock under this offering.
Use of proceeds
We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include funding research, clinical development, process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Risk Factors
An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus and the similarly titled sections in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
The Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol
IPSC
The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 57,586,030 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2022, and excludes as of such date:

7,424,538 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding, at a weighted-average exercise price of $7.34 per share;

773,394 shares of our common stock issuable upon early exercised stock options subject to future vesting;

520,630 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock awards outstanding;

32,009 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding, with a weighted-average exercise price of $10.64 per share;

6,014,349 shares of our common stock available for future issuance under our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan; and

1,114,126 shares of our common stock available for future issuance under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes no exercise of the outstanding options or warrants described above.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks described below and those discussed under the Section captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and in our most recent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to This Offering
Management will have broad discretion as to the use of the proceeds from this offering, and we may not use the proceeds effectively.
Our management will have broad discretion with respect to the use of proceeds of this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section of this prospectus entitled “Use of Proceeds.” You will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the proceeds of this offering. The results and effectiveness of the use of proceeds are uncertain, and we could spend the proceeds in ways that you do not agree with or that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. Our failure to apply these funds effectively could harm our business, delay the development of our product candidates and cause the price of our common stock to decline.
You will experience immediate dilution in the book value per share of the common stock purchased in the offering.
The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. However, we expect that the offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock. See the section entitled “Dilution” in this prospectus for a more detailed discussion of the dilution you will incur if you purchase common stock in this offering. In addition, the exercise of outstanding stock options may result in further dilution of your investment.
The trading price of the shares of our common stock could be highly volatile, and purchasers of our common stock could incur substantial losses.
Our stock price is likely to be volatile. The stock market in general and the market for stock of biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by those factors discussed in this “Risk factors” section and in similar sections incorporated by reference herein, as well as other factors, including:

the commencement, enrollment, or results of our current and future preclinical studies and clinical trials, and the results of trials of our competitors or those of other companies in our market sector;

regulatory approval of our product candidates, or limitations to specific label indications or patient populations for its use, or changes or delays in the regulatory review process;

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems, especially in light of current reforms to the United States healthcare system;

the success or failure of our efforts to acquire, license, or develop additional product candidates;

innovations or new products developed by us or our competitors;

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;
 
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manufacturing, supply or distribution delays or shortages;

any changes to our relationship with Bristol-Myers Squibb, FUJIFILM Cellular Dynamics Inc., any manufacturers, suppliers, licensors, future collaborators, or other strategic partners;

achievement of expected product sales and profitability;

variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

market conditions in the biopharmaceutical sector and issuance of securities analysts’ reports or recommendations;

trading volume of our common stock;

an inability to obtain additional funding;

sales of our stock by insiders and stockholders;

general economic, geopolitical, industry, and market conditions, or other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control;

additions or departures of key personnel; and

intellectual property, product liability, or other litigation against us.
In addition, in the past, stockholders have initiated class action lawsuits against biopharmaceutical companies following periods of volatility in the market prices of these companies’ stock. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could cause us to incur substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. If our stockholders sell, or the market perceives that our stockholders intend to sell, substantial amount of our common stock in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline significantly.
Shares issued upon the exercise of stock options outstanding under our equity incentive plans or pursuant to future awards granted under those plans will become available for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of applicable vesting schedules and Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act.
Moreover, certain holders of our common stock have rights, subject to conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in the shares becoming freely tradeable in the public market, subject to the restrictions of Rule 144 in the case of our affiliates. If any of these additional shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline.
The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.
Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to Cowen at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Cowen after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common shares during the sales period and limits we set with Cowen. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.
The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and accordingly may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results.
 
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We will have discretion, subject to market demand and the terms of the Sales Agreement, to vary the timing, prices and number of shares sold in this offering. In addition, subject to the final determination by our board of directors or any restrictions we may place in any applicable placement notice, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
 
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this prospectus or the documents incorporated herein by reference regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “potential,” “seek,” “evaluate,” “pursue,” “continue,” “design,” “impact,” “affect,” “forecast,” “target,” “outlook,” “initiative,” “objective,” “designed,” “priorities,” “goal,” or the negative of such terms and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.
The forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference include, among other things, statements about:

our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations and continue the development of our current and future product candidates;

the preclinical nature of our business and our ability to successfully advance our current and future product candidates through development activities, preclinical studies, and clinical trials;

our ability to generate revenue from future product sales and our ability to achieve and maintain profitability;

the accuracy of our projections and estimates regarding our expenses, capital requirements, cash utilization, and need for additional financing;

the extent to which the COVID 19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variants of COVID-19, and measures taken to contain its spread ultimately impact our business, including development activities, preclinical studies, future clinical trials, supply chain and labor force;

our dependence on the success of our product candidates, in particular CNTY-101, CNTY-103, and CNTY-102;

the novelty of our approach to immuno-oncology treatment of cancer, utilizing iNK cells and iT cells, and the challenges we will face due to the novel nature of such technology;

the success of competing therapies that are or become available;

our reliance on the maintenance of our collaborative relationship with FUJIFILM Cellular Dynamics Inc., or FCDI, for access to key differentiation and reprogramming technology for the manufacturing and development of our product candidates;

the initiation, progress, success, cost, and timing of our development activities, preclinical studies and future clinical trials;

the timing of our future investigational new drug, or IND, applications and the likelihood of, and our ability to obtain and maintain, regulatory clearance of such IND applications for our product candidates;

the timing, scope and likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including final regulatory approval of our product candidates;

our reliance on FCDI to be the exclusive manufacturer of certain product candidates, and our ability to manufacture our own product candidates in the future, and the timing and costs of such manufacturing activities;

our reliance on the maintenance of our collaborative relationship with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, or Bristol-Myers Squibb, in connection with the furtherance of our collaboration programs;

the performance of third parties in connection with the development of our product candidates, including third parties conducting our future clinical trials as well as third-party suppliers and manufacturers;
 
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our ability to attract and retain strategic collaborators with development, regulatory, and commercialization expertise;

the public opinion and scrutiny of cell-based immuno-oncology therapies for treating cancer and its potential impact on public perception of our company and product candidates;

our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and develop sales and marketing capabilities, if our product candidates are approved;

the size and growth of the potential markets for our product candidates and our ability to serve those markets;

regulatory developments and approval pathways in the United States and foreign countries for our product candidates;

the potential scope and value of our intellectual property and proprietary rights;

our ability, and the ability of our licensors, to obtain, maintain, defend, and enforce intellectual property and proprietary rights protecting our product candidates, and our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates without infringing, misappropriating, or otherwise violating the intellectual property or proprietary rights of third parties;

our ability to recruit and retain key members of management and other clinical and scientific personnel;

the volatility of capital markets and other macroeconomic factors, including due to geopolitical tensions or the outbreak of hostilities or war;

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and

other risks and uncertainties, including those described under the caption “Risk factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10 K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as such risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by our subsequent periodic reports we file with the SEC.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, and financial needs. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance, or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur at all. You should refer to the section titled “Risk factors” this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the documents we incorporate by reference herein and therein for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in this prospectus by these cautionary statements.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to $150,000,000 from time to time (before deducting sales agent commissions and expenses). Because there is no minimum offering amount required to be sold in connection with this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the Sales Agreement with Cowen as a source of financing.
We currently intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock under this prospectus primarily to fund research, clinical development, process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes.
These expected uses represent our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the progress of our development, the status of and results from clinical trials, as well as any new collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates, and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds from this offering.
Pending their use, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short- and medium-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit, or direct or guaranteed obligations of the United States government.
 
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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and our ability to pay cash dividends is currently restricted by the terms of our Loan and Security Agreement with Hercules Capital, Inc. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends on our common stock will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on various factors, including applicable laws, our results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, anticipated cash needs, plans for expansion and any other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.
 
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DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the price per share of our common stock you pay in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.
Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2022 was $386.7 million, or $6.71 per share of our common stock. Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2022 is equal to our total tangible assets minus total liabilities, all divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2022.
After giving effect to the sale of $150,000,000 of shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $8.40 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2022, and after deducting estimated offering commissions and expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value would have been approximately $531.90, or $7.05 per share of common stock, as of March 31, 2022. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $0.34 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of approximately $1.35 per share to investors in this offering. The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis.
Assumed public offering price per share
$ 8.40
Net tangible book value per share at March 31, 2022
$ 6.71
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing
shares in this offering
$ 0.34
As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2022, after giving effect to this offering
$ 7.05
Dilution per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering
$ 1.35
The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 17,857,142 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $8.40 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2022, for aggregate gross proceeds of $150,000,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $8.40 per share shown in the table above, assuming $150,000,000 of shares of our common stock is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $7.23 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $2.17 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $8.40 per share shown in the table above, assuming $150,000,000 of shares of our common stock is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $6.83 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.57 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.
The table and calculations above are based on 57,586,030 shares outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and exclude as of that date:

7,424,538 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding, at a weighted-average exercise price of $7.34 per share;

773,394 shares of our common stock issuable upon early exercised stock options subject to future vesting;

520,630 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock awards outstanding;

32,009 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding, with a weighted-average exercise price of $10.64 per share;
 
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6,014,349 shares of our common stock available for future issuance under our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan; and

1,114,126 shares of our common stock available for future issuance under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
To the extent that outstanding options or warrants are exercised, you will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of such securities may result in further dilution to our stockholders.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our capital stock is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. This description is summarized from, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which has been publicly filed with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information.” For a complete description, you should refer to our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, copies of which are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Common Stock
Under our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our Certificate of Incorporation, our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of March 31, 2022, we had 57,586,030 shares of common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.
Voting.   Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of holders of two-thirds of the voting power of all of the then outstanding voting stock will be required to take certain actions, including amending certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation, such as the provisions relating to amending our amended and restated bylaws, procedures for our stockholder meetings, the classified board, director liability, and exclusive forum for proceedings.
Dividends.   Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.
Liquidation and Dissolution.   In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.
Other Rights and Restrictions.   Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designated in the future.
Listing.   Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “IPSC.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar.   The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.
Preferred Stock
The authorized shares of preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders unless required by law or by the rules and regulations of any stock exchange on which our common stock may be listed. Our Certificate of Incorporation authorizes our board of directors to establish, from time to time, the number of shares to be included in each series of preferred stock, and to fix the designation, powers, privileges, preferences, and relative participating, optional or other rights, if any, of the shares of each series of preferred stock, and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors is authorized to increase or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series of preferred stock then outstanding, without any further vote or action by the stockholders.
The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In
 
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addition, the existence of unissued and unreserved common stock or preferred stock may enable our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, which could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and could thereby protect the continuity of our management and possibly deprive stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.
Anti-Takeover Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Charter Documents
Some provisions of Delaware law and our Certificate of Incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could make the following transactions more difficult: acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions that might result in a premium over the market price for our shares.
These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, which prohibits persons deemed “interested stockholders” from engaging in a “business combination” with a publicly-held Delaware corporation for three years following the date these persons become interested stockholders unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset, or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The existence of this provision may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by the board of directors, such as discouraging takeover attempts that might result in a premium over the market price of our common stock.
Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent
Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that all stockholder actions must be effected at a duly called meeting of stockholders and not by consent in writing. A special meeting of stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chair of our board of directors, or our chief executive officer.
Undesignated Preferred Stock
The ability to authorize undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.
Amendment of Charter Provisions
Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that the affirmative vote of holders of at least 662∕3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of voting stock, voting as a single class, will be required to amend certain provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation, including provisions relating to the size of the board, removal of directors, special meetings, actions by written consent, and cumulative voting. The affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2∕3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of voting stock, voting as a single class, will be required to amend or repeal our amended and restated bylaws unless such action is recommended by our board of directors at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, which would then require the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting
 
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power of all of the then outstanding shares of voting stock, voting as a single class. Additionally, our amended and restated bylaws may be amended by a simple majority vote of our board of directors.
Classified Board; Election and Removal of Directors
Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that our board of directors is divided into three classes, Class I, Class II, and Class III, with each class serving staggered terms, and will give our board of directors the exclusive right to expand the size of our board of directors and to elect directors to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death, or removal of a director.
Choice of Forum
Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, another state court located within the State of Delaware or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer, stockholder, employee, or agent of ours to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our Certificate of Incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws (in each case, as may be amended from time to time), (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware, or (v) any other action asserting an “internal corporate claim,” as defined in Section 115 of the DGCL, in all cases subject to the court having personal jurisdiction over all indispensable parties named as defendants.
Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. In addition, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or any other claim for which the federal and state courts have concurrent jurisdiction.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into a Sales Agreement with Cowen on July 1, 2022, under which we may offer and sell from time to time up to an aggregate of $150,000,000 of our common stock through Cowen as our sales agent or principal. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other existing trading market for our common stock. If authorized by us in writing, Cowen may purchase shares of our common stock as principal. A copy of the Sales Agreement that we entered into with Cowen is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, Cowen will use their commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the Sales Agreement upon proper notice to the other party.
Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the Sales Agreement, to terminate the Sales Agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.
The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent will be equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of the shares sold through them pursuant to the Sales Agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse Cowen up to an aggregate of $75,000 of Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by Cowen in connection with this offering. We have also agreed to reimburse Cowen for its FINRA counsel fee of up to $15,000 and certain ongoing expenses. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Cowen under the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $279,000.
The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.
Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the Sales Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the percentage of the daily trading volume and the net proceeds to us.
We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the Sales Agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.
Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the Sales Agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As the sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our common stock.
 
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Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market and trades under the symbol “IPSC.” The transfer agent of our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.
Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the common stock being offered in this offering will be passed upon for us by Troutman Pepper Hamilton Sanders LLP. Cowen is being represented by Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP in connection with this offering.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Century Therapeutics, Inc. as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, incorporated by reference in this Prospectus and Registration Statement have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon incorporated by reference herein, and are included in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
The SEC maintains an Internet website at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. You may access the registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part, at the SEC’s Internet website. Our reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are also available for download, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports are filed with the SEC, at our website at http:// www.centurytx.com. The content contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference and is not a part of this prospectus.
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC:

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on March 17, 2022;

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on May 16, 2022;

The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Form DEF 14-A, filed on April 21, 2022;

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 10, 2022, January 13, 2022, April 13, 2022, May 10, 2022 and June 10, 2022 (in each case other than any portions thereof deemed furnished and not filed); and

The description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001- 40498) filed with the SEC on June 14, 2021, under the Exchange Act, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than any filings or portions of such reports that are not deemed “filed” under the Exchange Act in accordance with the Exchange Act and applicable
 
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SEC rules, including current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits furnished on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus and will become a part of this prospectus from the date that such documents are filed with the SEC. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later filed document modify or replace such earlier statements.
We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including exhibits to these documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Century Therapeutics, Inc., Attn: Corporate Secretary, 3675 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104.
 
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$150,000,000
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_centurytherapeutics-4c.jpg]
Common Stock
PROSPECTUS
Cowen

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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.   Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
The following is an estimate of the expenses (all of which are to be paid by the registrant) that we may incur in connection with the securities being registered hereby, other than the SEC registration fee.
SEC registration fee
$ 46,350
The Nasdaq Global Select Market supplemental listing fee
$ (1)
Fees and expenses of the trustee
$ (1)
Printing expenses
$ (1)
Legal fees and expenses
$ (1)
Accounting fees and expenses
$ (1)
Blue Sky, qualification fees and expenses
$ (1)
Transfer agent fees and expenses
$ (1)
Miscellaneous
$ (1)
Total
$ (1)
(1)
These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.
Item 15.   Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
As permitted by Section 102 of the DGCL, the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and amended and restated bylaws limit or eliminate the personal liability of the Company’s directors for a breach of their fiduciary duty of care as a director. The duty of care generally requires that, when acting on behalf of the corporation, directors exercise an informed business judgment based on all material information reasonably available to them. Consequently, a director will not be personally liable to the Company or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability for:

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Company or its stockholders;

any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

any act related to unlawful stock repurchases, redemptions, or other distributions or payment of dividends; or

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
These limitations of liability do not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as injunctive relief or rescission. The Company’s Certificate of Incorporation authorizes the Company to indemnify its officers, directors and other agents to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law.
As permitted by Section 145 of the DGCL, the Company’s amended and restated bylaws provide that:

the Company may indemnify its directors, officers, and employees to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, subject to limited exceptions;

the Company may advance expenses to its directors, officers, and employees in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, subject to limited exceptions; and

the rights provided in the Company’s amended and restated bylaws are not exclusive.
The Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and its amended and restated bylaws provide for the indemnification provisions described above and elsewhere herein. The Company has entered into indemnification agreements with the Company’s directors and officers that may be broader than the
 
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specific indemnification provisions contained in the DGCL. These indemnification agreements generally require the Company, among other things, to indemnify its officers and directors against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers, other than liabilities arising from willful misconduct. These indemnification agreements also generally require the Company to advance any expenses incurred by the directors or officers as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. These indemnification provisions and the indemnification agreements may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of the Company’s officers and directors for liabilities, including reimbursement of expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act.
The Company has purchased and currently intends to maintain insurance on behalf of each and every person who is or was a director or officer of the company against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.
In any underwriting agreement the Company enters into in connection with the sale of securities being registered hereby, the underwriters will agree to indemnify, under certain conditions, the Company, its directors, its officers and persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act against certain liabilities.
Item 16.   Exhibits.
(a)
Exhibits
EXHIBIT INDEX
Exhibit
Number
Description of Exhibit
1.1* Form of Underwriting Agreement.
1.2
3.1 Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-40498) filed on June 25, 2021).
3.2
4.1 Specimen Common Stock Certificate of Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (File No. 333-256648), dated June 14, 2021).
4.2 Investors’ Rights Agreement, by and among the Registrant and each of the investors listed on Schedule A thereto, dated February 25, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-256648), dated May 28, 2021).
4.3
4.4
4.5* Form of Debt Security.
4.6* Form of Warrant.
4.7* Form of Unit Agreement.
4.8* Form of Subscription Rights Agreement.
5.1
23.1
23.2
 
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Exhibit
Number
Description of Exhibit
24.1
25.1 Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the trustee, as trustee under the indenture filed herewith.
107
*
To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of the securities.

To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Item 601(b)(25) of Regulation S-K.
Item 17.   Undertakings.
(a)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)
To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;
(ii)
To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in the volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)
To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:
(i)
Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)
Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information
 
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required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(6)
That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)
Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)
Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)
The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)
Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(h)
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
 
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(j)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (the “Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.
 
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Philadelphia, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, on the 1st day of July, 2022.
Century Therapeutics, Inc.
By:
/s/ Osvaldo Flores, Ph.D.
Name:
Osvaldo Flores, Ph.D.
Title:
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
 

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POWER OF ATTORNEY
We, the undersigned officers and directors of Century Therapeutics, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint each of Osvaldo Flores, Ph.D. and Michael Diem, M.D., our true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in her or him for her or him and in her or his name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as full to all intents and purposes as she or he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent, or her or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ Osvaldo Flores, Ph.D.
Osvaldo Flores, Ph.D.
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
July 1, 2022
/s/ Michael Diem, M.D.
Michael Diem, M.D.
Chief Business Officer
(Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)
July 1, 2022
/s/ Joseph Jimenez
Joseph Jimenez
Chairman, Board of Directors
July 1, 2022
/s/ Kimberly Blackwell, M.D.
Kimberly Blackwell, M.D.
Director
July 1, 2022
/s/ Cynthia Butitta
Cynthia Butitta
Director
July 1, 2022
/s/ Eli Casdin
Eli Casdin
Director
July 1, 2022
/s/ Alessandro Riva, M.D.
Alessandro Riva, M.D.
Director
July 1, 2022
/s/ Carlo Rizzuto, Ph.D.
Carlo Rizzuto, Ph.D.
Director
July 1, 2022
 

 

Exhibit 1.2

 

Execution Version

 

Century therapeutics, inc.

 

$150,000,000

 
COMMON STOCK

 
SALES AGREEMENT

 

July 1, 2022

 

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Century Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

 

1.                  Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000 (the “Maximum Amount”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Common Stock through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company and after such Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Common Stock.

 

The Company shall file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including (a) a base prospectus, relating to certain securities to be issued from time to time by the Company, and (b) a prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “ATM Prospectus”), each of which is included as part of such registration statement and incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company shall furnish to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the ATM Prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as may be supplemented by one or more prospectus supplements (each, a “Prospectus Supplement”), if any, relating to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, as amended when it becomes effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, or any subsequent registration statement on Form S-3 filed pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act by the Company to cover any Placement Shares, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The ATM Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by one or more Prospectus Supplements, if any, in the form in which such ATM Prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplements have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is consented to by Cowen, hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus,” (ii) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”).

 

 

 

2.                  Placements. Each time that the Company wishes, in its sole discretion, to issue and sell the Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of shares of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice, for any reason, in its sole discretion, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

3.                  Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. In the event the Company engages Cowen for a sale of Placement Shares that would constitute a “block” within the meaning of Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act (a “Block Sale”), the Company will provide Cowen, at Cowen’s request and upon reasonable advance notice to the Company, on or prior to the Settlement Date (as defined below), the opinions of counsel, accountant’s letter and officers’ certificates set forth in Section 8 hereof, each dated the Settlement Date, and such other documents and information as Cowen shall reasonably request. Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made through Nasdaq or on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock. Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

 

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Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company shall not offer, sell or deliver, or request the offer or sale, of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and, by notice to Cowen given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), shall cancel any instructions for the offer or sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to offer or sell any Placement Shares, (i) during any period in which the Company is, or would reasonably be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, or (ii) at any time from and including the date on which the Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.

 

4.                  Suspension of Sales.

 

(a)       The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.

 

(b)       If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Placement Shares under this Agreement.

 

(c)       Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, after the Commission declares the Registration Statement effective, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

5.                  Settlement.

 

(a)  Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such settlement date, the “First Delivery Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales; provided that Cowen shall promptly notify the Company if the calculation of any Net Proceeds reflects deductions pursuant to clauses (ii) or (iii).

 

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(b)  Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one (1) Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. Cowen shall be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or instructions for delivery by other means with respect to the Placement Shares being sold. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of Cowen’s failure to provide true and correct instructions for delivery), the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

6.                  Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that as of (i) the date of this Agreement, (ii) each Time of Sale (as defined below), (iii) each Settlement Date, and (iv) each Bring-Down Date (as defined below) (each date included in (i) through (iv), a “Representation Date”):

 

(a)  Compliance with Registration Requirements. Prior to the delivery of the first Placement Notice, the Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements of General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

 

(b)  No Misstatement or Omission. The Prospectus when filed complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each Representation Date, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Representation Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each Representation Date, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Agent’s Information (as defined below). There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. As used herein, “Time of Sale” means with respect to each offering of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the time of Cowen’s initial entry into contracts with purchasers for the sale of such Placement Shares.

 

(c)  Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. The Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus was required to be filed with the Commission) delivered to Cowen for use in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares contemplated herein have been and will be identical to the versions of such documents transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

 

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(d)  Financial Statements. The financial statements (including the related notes thereto) of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and present fairly in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and the changes in their cash flows for the periods specified; such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby, except in the case of unaudited financial statements, which are subject to normal year-end adjustments and do not contain certain footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the Commission; and any supporting schedules included in the Registration Statement present fairly in all material respects the information required to be stated therein; and the other financial information included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries and presents fairly in all material respects the information shown thereby; no “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) that would need to comply with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the Securities Act are disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

 

(e) No Material Adverse Change. Since the date of the most recent financial statements of the Company included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) there has not been any material change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants described as outstanding in, and the grant of options and awards under existing equity incentive plans described in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus), short-term debt or long-term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock, or any material adverse change, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; (ii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole; and (iii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sustained any loss or interference with its business that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole and that is either from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor disturbance or dispute or any action, order or decree of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except in each case as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (any of the foregoing, a “Material Adverse Change”).

 

(f) Organization and Good Standing. The Company and each of its subsidiaries have been duly organized and are validly existing and in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization, are duly qualified to do business and are in good standing in each jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification, and have all power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or on the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement (a “Material Adverse Effect”). The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Schedule 4 hereof.

 

(g) Capitalization. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; all the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and are not subject to any pre-emptive or similar rights that have not been duly waived or satisfied; except as described in or expressly contemplated by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no outstanding rights (including, without limitation, pre-emptive rights), warrants or options to acquire, or instruments convertible into or exchangeable for, any shares of capital stock or other equity interest in the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any contract, commitment, agreement, understanding or arrangement of any kind relating to the issuance of any capital stock of the Company or any such subsidiary, any such convertible or exchangeable securities or any such rights, warrants or options; the capital stock of the Company conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and all the outstanding shares of capital stock or other equity interests of each subsidiary owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of any lien, charge, encumbrance, security interest, restriction on voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

 

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(h) Stock Options. With respect to the stock options (the “Stock Options”) granted pursuant to the stock-based compensation plans of the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Company Stock Plans”), except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, (i) each Stock Option intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) so qualifies, (ii) each grant of a Stock Option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Stock Option was by its terms to be effective (the “Grant Date”) by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (iii) each such grant was made in accordance with the terms of the Company Stock Plans, the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and (iv) each such grant was properly accounted for in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company. The Company has not knowingly granted, and there is no and has been no policy or practice of the Company of granting, Stock Options prior to, or otherwise coordinating the grant of Stock Options with, the release or other public announcement of material information regarding the Company or its subsidiaries or their results of operations or prospects.

 

(i)  Due Authorization. The Company has full right, power and authority to execute and deliver this Agreement and to perform its obligations hereunder; and all action required to be taken for the due and proper authorization, execution and delivery by it of this Agreement and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby has been duly and validly taken.

 

(j) Sales Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

 

(k) The Shares. The Placement Shares to be issued and sold by the Company hereunder have been duly authorized by the Company and, when issued and delivered and paid for as provided herein, will be duly and validly issued, will be fully paid and nonassessable and will conform in all material respects to the descriptions thereof in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and the issuance of the Placement Shares is not subject to any preemptive or similar rights that have not been duly waived or satisfied.

 

(l) Description of the Sales Agreement. This Agreement conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

(m) No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(n) No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and the Prospectus will not (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, result in the termination, modification or acceleration of, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any property, right or asset of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation, default, termination, modification, acceleration, lien, charge or encumbrance that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(o) No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except for the registration of the Placement Shares under the Securities Act and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) and under applicable state securities laws in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(p) Legal Proceedings. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, actions, demands, claims, suits, arbitrations, inquiries or proceedings (“Actions”) pending to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or may reasonably be expected to become a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or may reasonably be expected to become the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; to the knowledge of the Company, no such Actions are threatened or contemplated by any governmental or regulatory authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending Actions that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and (ii) there are no statutes, regulations or contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

(q) Independent Accountants. Ernst & Young LLP, who have certified certain financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) and as required by the Securities Act.

 

(r) Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple (in the case of real property) to, or have valid rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real and personal property that are material to the respective businesses of the Company and its subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, claims and defects and imperfections of title except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries or (ii) could not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(s) Intellectual Property. (i) The Company and its subsidiaries own or have the valid and enforceable right to use, or can readily acquire on commercially reasonable terms, any and all patents, trademarks, service marks, trade names, domain names and other source indicators, copyrights and copyrightable works, know-how, trade secrets, data, systems, procedures, software, proprietary or confidential information and all other worldwide intellectual property, industrial property and proprietary rights (including all registrations and applications for registration of, and all goodwill associated with, the foregoing) (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) used or held for use in, or necessary for, the conduct of their respective businesses in all material respects as currently conducted and, to the Company’s knowledge, as proposed to be conducted in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; (ii) to the Company’s knowledge, the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ conduct of their respective businesses as currently conducted and as proposed to be conducted in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, has not infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, and will not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate, respectively, any Intellectual Property of any person; (iii) there is no claim, action, suit, investigation or proceeding pending against, or to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against, the Company or any of its subsidiaries (A) based upon, or challenging or seeking to deny or restrict, any rights of the Company or any of its subsidiaries in any Intellectual Property owned by or licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, (B) challenging the ownership, validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property owned or controlled by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or (C) alleging that the Company or any of its subsidiaries has infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated any Intellectual Property of any person, except, in the case of this subclause (iii), those that could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; (iv) to the knowledge of the Company, the Intellectual Property owned by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company or any of its subsidiaries has not been infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated by any person; (v) none of the Intellectual Property owned or controlled by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company or any of its subsidiaries has been adjudged invalid or unenforceable and, to the knowledge of the Company, all Intellectual Property owned or controlled by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company or any of its subsidiaries is valid and enforceable; (vi) the Company and its subsidiaries have taken commercially reasonable steps in accordance with normal industry practice to maintain the confidentiality of all Intellectual Property of the Company and its subsidiaries the value of which to the Company or any of its subsidiaries is contingent upon maintaining the confidentiality thereof, and, to the knowledge of the Company, no such Intellectual Property has been disclosed other than to employees, representatives and agents of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, all of whom are bound by written confidentiality agreements; and (vii) the Company and its subsidiaries have complied in all material respects with, and are not in breach of, all licenses for the use of Intellectual Property described in the Registration Statement and Prospectus.

 

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(t) No Undisclosed Relationships. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders, customers, suppliers or other affiliates of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, on the other, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents.

 

(u) Investment Company Act. The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, will not be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Investment Company Act”).

 

(v) Taxes. The Company and its subsidiaries have paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes and filed all tax returns required to be paid or filed through the date hereof; and except as otherwise disclosed in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there is no tax deficiency that has been, or could reasonably be expected to be, asserted against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets, in each case, except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(w) Licenses and Permits. The Company and its subsidiaries possess all licenses, sub-licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to possess or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and except as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received notice of any revocation or modification of any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization or has any reason to believe that any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course.

 

(x) No Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by, or dispute with, the employees of any of its or its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, contractors or customers, except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(y) Certain Environmental Matters. (i) The Company and its subsidiaries (x) are in compliance with all, and have not violated any, applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws (including common law), rules, regulations, requirements, decisions, judgments, decrees, orders and other legally enforceable requirements relating to pollution or the protection of human health or safety, the environment, natural resources, hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (y) have received and are in compliance with all, and have not violated any, permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations or approvals required of them under any Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses; and (z) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability or obligation under or relating to, or any actual or potential violation of, any Environmental Laws, including for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice; (ii) there are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws of or relating to the Company or its subsidiaries, except in the case of each of (i) and (ii) above, for any such matter as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) except as described in the Prospectus, (x) there is no proceeding that is pending, or that is known to the Company to be contemplated, against the Company or any of its subsidiaries under any Environmental Laws in which a governmental entity is also a party, other than such proceeding regarding which it is reasonably believed no monetary sanctions of $300,000 or more will be imposed, (y) the Company and its subsidiaries are not aware of any facts or issues regarding compliance with Environmental Laws, or liabilities or other obligations under Environmental Laws or concerning hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, that could, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, and (z) none of the Company or its subsidiaries anticipates material capital expenditures relating to any Environmental Laws.

 

(z) Compliance with ERISA. (i) Each employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any entity, whether or not incorporated, that is under common control with the Company within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(14) of ERISA or any entity that would be regarded as a single employer with the Company under Section 414(b),(c),(m) or (o) of the Code would have any liability (each, a “Plan”) has been maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Code; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan, excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; (iii) for each Plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no Plan has failed (whether or not waived), or is reasonably expected to fail, to satisfy the minimum funding standards (within the meaning of Section 302 of ERISA or Section 412 of the Code) applicable to such Plan; (iv) no Plan is, or is reasonably expected to be, in “at risk status” (within the meaning of Section 303(i) of ERISA) and no Plan that is a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA is in “endangered status” or “critical status” (within the meaning of Sections 304 and 305 of ERISA) (v) the fair market value of the assets of each Plan exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such Plan (determined based on those assumptions used to fund such Plan); (vi) no “reportable event” (within the meaning of Section 4043(c) of ERISA and the regulations promulgated thereunder) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur; (vii) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification; (viii) neither the Company nor any member of the Controlled Group has incurred, nor reasonably expects to incur, any liability under Title IV of ERISA (other than contributions to the Plan or premiums to the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation, in the ordinary course and without default) in respect of a Plan (including a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA); and (ix) none of the following events has occurred or is reasonably likely to occur: (A) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans by the Company or its Controlled Group affiliates in the current fiscal year of the Company and its Controlled Group affiliates compared to the amount of such contributions made in the Company’s and its Controlled Group affiliates’ most recently completed fiscal year; or (B) a material increase in the Company and its subsidiaries’ “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 715-60) compared to the amount of such obligations in the Company and its subsidiaries’ most recently completed fiscal year, except in each case with respect to the events or conditions set forth in (i) through (ix) hereof, as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(aa) Disclosure Controls. The Company and its subsidiaries maintain an effective system of “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and that has been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

(bb) Accounting Controls. The Company and its subsidiaries maintain systems of “internal control over financial reporting” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that are designed to comply with the applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and have been designed by, or under the supervision of, their respective principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. The Company and its subsidiaries maintain internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no material weaknesses in the Company’s internal controls. The Company’s auditors and the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company have been advised of: (i) all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal controls over financial reporting which have adversely affected or are reasonably likely to adversely affect the Company’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and (ii) any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting.

 

(cc) Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries have insurance covering their respective properties, operations, personnel and businesses, including business interruption insurance, which insurance is in amounts and insures against such losses and risks as are generally maintained by similarly situated companies and which the Company believes are reasonably adequate to protect the Company and its subsidiaries and their respective businesses; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has (i) received notice from any insurer or agent of such insurer that capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance or (ii) any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business.

 

(dd) Cybersecurity; Data Protection. Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its subsidiaries’ respective information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third-party data maintained by or on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries ) (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and its subsidiaries as currently conducted, free and clear of all bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and its subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards necessary to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data (including all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (including protected health information) (“Personal Data”)) collected, used, stored or otherwise processed in connection with their businesses, and except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, there have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its subsidiaries are presently, and since formation have been, in compliance with all applicable laws or statutes (including without limitation, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act) and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal and external privacy policies, applicable industry standards and contractual obligations, in each case, relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data, the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification or the collection, use, transfer, import, export, storage, disposal, disclosure or other processing by the Company and its subsidiaries of Personal Data (“Data Protection Obligations”). Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any written notification of or written complaint regarding, or is aware of any other facts that, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably indicate non-compliance in any material respect with any Data Protection Obligation. There is no pending, or to the knowledge of the Company, threatened, action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body alleging non-compliance in any material respect with any Data Protection Obligation. The Company and its subsidiaries have taken commercially reasonable steps in accordance with industry standard practices (including, without limitation, implementing and monitoring compliance with adequate measures with respect to technical and physical security) designed to protect Personal Data collected, used or otherwise processed by the Company or any of its subsidiaries. Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its subsidiaries have made all disclosures to users or customers required by the Data Protection Obligations, including applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and no such disclosures have been inaccurate or in violation of any such Data Protection Obligations, applicable laws or regulatory rules and requirements.

 

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(ee) No Unlawful Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor any director, officer or employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made or taken an act in furtherance of an offer, promise or authorization of any direct or indirect unlawful payment or benefit to any foreign or domestic government official or employee, including of any government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable law or regulation implementing the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, or committed an offence under the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law; or (iv) made, offered, agreed, requested or taken an act in furtherance of any unlawful bribe or other unlawful benefit, including, without limitation, any rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful or improper payment or benefit. The Company and its subsidiaries have instituted, maintain and enforce, and will continue to maintain and enforce policies and procedures designed to promote and ensure compliance with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws.

 

(ff) Compliance with Anti-Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the applicable money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions where the Company or any of its subsidiaries conducts business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

(gg) No Conflicts with Sanctions Laws. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, directors, officers, or employees, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. government, (including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury or the U.S. Department of State and including, without limitation, the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person”), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor is the Company or any of its subsidiaries located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions, including, without limitation, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria, the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic, so-called Lubansk People’s Republic or any other Covered Region of Ukraine identified pursuant to Executive Order 14065 and the Crimea region of Ukraine (each, a “Sanctioned Country”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject or target of Sanctions, (ii) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business in any Sanctioned Country or (iii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions. Since formation, the Company and its subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in and are not now knowingly engaged in any dealings or transactions with any person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject or the target of Sanctions or with any Sanctioned Country.

 

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(hh) No Restrictions on Subsidiaries. No subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, under any agreement or other instrument to which it is a party or is subject, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such subsidiary’s capital stock or similar ownership interest, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such subsidiary’s properties or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company.

 

(ii) No Broker’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or Cowen for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(jj) No Registration Rights. No person has the right to require the Company or any of its subsidiaries to register any securities for sale under the Securities Act by reason of the filing of the Registration Statement with the Commission or the issuance and sale of the Shares, except for such rights as have been waived.

 

(kk) No Stabilization. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, affiliates have taken, directly or indirectly, without giving effect to activities by the Underwriters, any action designed to or that could reasonably be expected to cause or result in any stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Placement Shares.

 

(ll) Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares by the Company nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

(mm) Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

(nn) Statistical and Market Data. Nothing has come to the attention of the Company that has caused the Company to believe that the statistical and market-related data included in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is not based on or derived from sources that are reliable and accurate in all material respects.

 

(oo) Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 related to loans and Sections 302 and 906 related to certifications.

 

(pp) Status under the Securities Act. At the time of filing the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the earliest time thereafter that the Company or any offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2) under the Securities Act) of the Shares and at the date hereof, the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

 

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(qq) Regulatory Matters; Product Candidates. The Company (collectively with its subsidiaries): (i) has operated and currently operates its business in compliance in all material respects with applicable provisions of the Health Care Laws (as defined below) of the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the Department of Health and Human Services and any comparable foreign or other regulatory authority to which they are subject (collectively, the “Applicable Regulatory Authorities”) applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any of the Company’s or its subsidiary’s product candidates ; (ii) has not received any FDA Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting material non-compliance with (A) any Health Care Laws or (B) any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, exemptions, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Health Care Laws (“Regulatory Authorizations”); (iii) possesses all Regulatory Authorizations required to conduct its business as currently conducted, except where the absence of such Regulatory Authorizations would not be reasonably expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, and such Regulatory Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect in all material respects and the Company is not in material violation of any term of any such Regulatory Authorizations; (iv) has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from the Applicable Regulatory Authorities or any other third party alleging that any product candidate of the Company is in violation of any applicable Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that the Applicable Regulatory Authorities or any other third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (v) has not received written notice that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any material Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities is considering such action; (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and that all such material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct in all material respects on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); (vii) is not a party to and does not have any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any material corporate integrity agreements, deferred prosecution agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, plans of correction or similar agreements with or imposed by any Applicable Regulatory Authority; and (viii) along with its employees, officers and directors, has not been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any government health care program or human clinical research and, to the knowledge of the Company, is not subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion. The term “Health Care Laws” means Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1395-1395hhh (the Medicare statute); Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1396-1396v (the Medicaid statute); the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b); the civil False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.; the criminal False Claims Act, 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7b(a); any criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287 and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320d et seq., (“HIPAA”); the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320a-7a and 1320a-7b; the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h; the Exclusion Statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7; HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq.; the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.; the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 201 et seq.; the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws; and any similar federal, state and local laws and regulations.

 

(rr) Preclinical Studies. (i) The preclinical and clinical studies conducted by or, to the knowledge of the Company, on behalf of or sponsored by the Company or its subsidiaries, or in which the Company or its subsidiaries have participated, that are described in the Registration Statement, and the Prospectus, or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable, were, and if still pending are, being conducted in all material respects in accordance with standard medical and scientific research standards and procedures for products or product candidates comparable to those being developed by the Company and all applicable provisions of the Health Care Laws; (ii) the descriptions in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus of the results of such studies are accurate and complete descriptions in all material respects and fairly present the data derived therefrom; (iii) the Company has no knowledge of any other studies not described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the results of which are materially inconsistent with or call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; (iv) the Company and its subsidiaries have operated at all times and are currently in compliance with all applicable provisions of the Health Care Laws including Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice requirements, except where such non-compliance would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; (v) the Company has provided Cowen with all material written notices, correspondence and summaries of all other communications from the Applicable Regulatory Authorities; and (vi) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries have received any written notices, correspondence or other communications from the Applicable Regulatory Authorities or any other governmental agency requiring or threatening the termination, material modification or suspension of any preclinical or clinical studies that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such studies or trials, and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same.

 

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(ss) No Ratings. There are no debt securities, convertible securities or preferred stock issued or guaranteed by the Company or any of its subsidiaries that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization”, as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) under the Exchange Act.

 

 

(tt)  Emerging Growth Company. The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company ceasing to be an emerging growth company.

 

(uu)  Distribution of Offering Material By the Company. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.

 

(vv)  XBRL. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in each Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

(ww)  Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the Settlement Dates, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(xx)  Listing. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on the Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. All of the Placement Shares that have been or may be sold under this Agreement have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq, subject to official notice of issuance; the Company has taken all necessary actions to ensure that, upon and at all times after the Nasdaq shall have approved the Placement Shares for listing, it will be in compliance with all applicable corporate governance requirements set forth in the Nasdaq’s listing rules that are then in effect.

 

(yy) No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

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Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

 

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

 

7.                  Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

 

(a)  Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto within two (2) Business Days (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act, and (v) prior to the termination of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise. Prior to the initial sale of any Placement Shares, the Company shall file an ATM Prospectus pursuant to Rule 424(b) relating to the Placement Shares.

 

(b)  Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

 

(c)  Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance.

 

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(d)  Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

 

(e)  Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f)  Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.

 

(g)  Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) stamp duties, similar taxes or duties or other taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (viii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, such legal expense reimbursement not to exceed $15,000 and, (ix) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $75,000.

 

(h) Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the ATM Prospectus and any applicable Prospectus Supplement in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

(i) Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for 3 trading days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably possible before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) offer, issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise or vesting of options or other equity awards pursuant to any equity incentive plan, stock option, employee stock purchase plan, stock bonus, other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, or inducement equity awards pursuant to Rule 5634(c)(4) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules, (ii) the offer or issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance (iv) any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding or (v) the issuance of any shares of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to licensors, vendors, customers, strategic partners or potential strategic partners and otherwise conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of the Placement Shares contemplated hereby.

 

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(j)  Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(k)  Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

 

(l)  Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market. The Company shall disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K, the number of the Placement Shares sold through Cowen under this Agreement, and the gross proceeds and Net Proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Placement Shares and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year.

 

(m)  Bring-Down Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time (i) the Company files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares; (ii) the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) the Company files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) the Company files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release or other information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a "Bring-Down Date"); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days of any Bring-Down Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Bring-Down Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Bring-Down Date) and the next occurring Bring-Down Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Bring-Down Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice.

 

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(n)  Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen:

 

(i)a written opinion and negative assurance letter of Troutman Pepper Hamilton Sanders LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Bring-Down Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Bring-Down Date); and

 

(ii)written opinions of Troutman Pepper Hamilton Sanders LLP and Ice Miller LLP, as the Company’s intellectual property counsels, or other counsel reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Bring-Down Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a Reliance Letter.

 

(o)  Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen letters (the "Comfort Letters"), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

(p)  Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Common Stock to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

(q)  Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

 

(r)  Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its subsidiaries shall use commercially reasonable efforts to maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

 

(s)  Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

 

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(t)  Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

(u)  No Offer to Sell. Other than a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Common Stock hereunder.

 

(v)  Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its subsidiaries will use their best efforts to comply with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

(w)  Affirmation. Each Placement Notice delivered by the Company to Cowen shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation that the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company herein contained and contained in any certificate delivered to Cowen pursuant hereto are true and correct at the time of delivery of such Placement Notice, and (ii) an undertaking that such representations, warranties and agreements will be true and correct on any applicable Time of Sale and Settlement Date, as though made at and as of each such time (it being understood that such representations, warranties and agreements shall relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of such Placement Notice acceptance).

 

(x)  Renewal. If immediately prior to the third anniversary (the “Renewal Deadline”) of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, the aggregate gross sales price of Placement Shares sold by the Company is less than the Maximum Amount and this Agreement has not expired or been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Deadline, file, if it has not already done so and is eligible to do so, a new shelf registration statement relating to the Placement Shares, in a form satisfactory to Cowen, and, if not automatically effective, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 60 days after the Renewal Deadline. The Company will take all other action necessary or appropriate to permit the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement relating to the Placement Shares. References herein to the Registration Statement shall include such new shelf registration statement.

 

8.                  Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement Notice will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and thereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a)  Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Placement Shares issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.

 

(b)  No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(c)  No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)  Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change as described in Section 6(e) hereof, the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(e)  Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

(f)  Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

 

(g)  Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

 

(h)  Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(i)  Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

 

(j)  No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

 

(k)  Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.

 

(l)  Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

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(m)  Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

 

(n)  No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

 

9.                  Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)  Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable and documented investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with solely Agent’s Information. “Agent’s Information” means, solely, the following information in the Prospectus: the third sentence of the ninth paragraph and the eleventh paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

(b)  Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

 

(c)  Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable and documented costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the reasonable and documented fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable and documented fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable and documented fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party within thirty (30) days of the written receipt of the documented expenses by the indemnifying party. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

 

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(d)  Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, reasonable and documented expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

 

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10.               Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

11.               Termination.

 

(a)  Cowen shall have the right by giving notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause to deliver) any certification, opinion or letter required under Sections 7(m), 7(n), 7(o) or 7(p), Cowen’s right to terminate shall not arise if such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) is pursuant to a waiver as noted in Section 7(m); or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).

 

(b)  The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(c)  Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)  Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

- 23 -

 

 

(e)  This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(f)  Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have liability to Cowen for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by Cowen under this Agreement, except for reimbursement of expenses under Section 7(g).

 

(g)  Subject to the additional limitations set forth in Section 7 of this Agreement, in the event of termination of this Agreement prior to the sale of any Placement Shares, Cowen shall be entitled only to reimbursement of its out of pocket expenses actually incurred.

 

12.               Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no. 646-562-1130, Attention: General Counsel, email: Bradley.friedman@cowen.com; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Century Therapeutics, Inc., 3675 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, Attention: Lalo Flores, with copies to Troutman Pepper Hamilton Sanders LLP, 2 Logan Square, Suite 3000, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, Attention: Rachael Bushey. Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

13.               Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.

 

14.               Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

15.               Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

 

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16.               Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

 

17.               Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby.

 

18.               Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)  Cowen has been retained solely to act as an arm’s length contractual counterparty to the Company in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares contemplated hereby and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

 

(b)  the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c)  the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

 

(d)  the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

 

19.               Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

 

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

- 25 -

 

 

 

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
   
  By: /s/ Michael Murphy
    Name: Michael Murphy
    Title: Managing Director
   
  ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
   
  CENTURY THERAPEUTICS, INC.
   
  By: /s/ Michael Diem
  Name: Michael Diem, M.D.
  Title: Chief Business Officer

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

form of PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:[                              ]
Cc:[                              ]
To: [                              ]

Subject: Cowen At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

 

Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Century Therapeutics, Inc. (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated July [1], 2022 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [ ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value [____] per share, at a minimum market price of $_______ per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

Notice Parties

 

Company

 

Lalo Flores Chief Executive Officer
   
Michael Diem Chief Business Officer

 

Cowen

 

Michael J. Murphy Managing Director
   
William Follis Managing Director

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

Compensation

 

Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Common Stock pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 4

 

SUBSIDIARIES OF CENTURY THERAPEUTICS, INC.

 

Subsidiary Ownership Percentage State or Country of Incorporation
Century Therapeutics Canada ULC 100% British Columbia, Canada

 

 

 

 

EXHIBIT 7(m)

 

OFFICER CERTIFICATE

 

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Century Therapeutics, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated July 1, 2022 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned.

 

(i)       The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Change, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

 

(ii)       The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

  By:  
    Name:
    Title:

 

Date:                                              

 

2

 

 

Exhibit 4.4

 

CENTURY THERAPEUTICS, INC.

INDENTURE

Dated as of [ · ], 20[ · ]

[ · ]

Trustee

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Page
ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 1
Section 1.1. Definitions 1
Section 1.2. Other Definitions 3
Section 1.3. Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act 3
Section 1.4. Rules of Construction 4
ARTICLE II. THE SECURITIES 4
Section 2.1. Issuable in Series 4
Section 2.2. Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities 4
Section 2.3. Execution and Authentication 6
Section 2.4. Registrar and Paying Agent 7
Section 2.5. Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust 7
Section 2.6. Securityholder Lists 7
Section 2.7. Transfer and Exchange 8
Section 2.8. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities 8
Section 2.9. Outstanding Securities 8
Section 2.10. Treasury Securities 9
Section 2.11. Temporary Securities 9
Section 2.12. Cancellation 9
Section 2.13. Defaulted Interest 9
Section 2.14. Global Securities 10
Section 2.15. CUSIP Numbers 11
ARTICLE III. REDEMPTION 11
Section 3.1. Notice to Trustee 11
Section 3.2. Selection of Securities to be Redeemed 11
Section 3.3. Notice of Redemption 11
Section 3.4. Effect of Notice of Redemption 12
Section 3.5. Deposit of Redemption Price 12
Section 3.6. Securities Redeemed in Part 12
ARTICLE IV. COVENANTS 12
Section 4.1. Payment of Principal and Interest 12
Section 4.2. SEC Reports 13
Section 4.3. Compliance Certificate 13
Section 4.4. Stay, Extension and Usury Laws 13
ARTICLE V. SUCCESSORS 13
Section 5.1. When Company May Merge, Etc. 13
Section 5.2. Successor Corporation Substituted 14
ARTICLE VI. DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES 14
Section 6.1. Events of Default 14
Section 6.2. Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment 15
Section 6.3. Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 15
Section 6.4. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim 16
Section 6.5. Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities 16
Section 6.6. Application of Money Collected 16
Section 6.7. Limitation on Suits 17

 

 

 

 

Section 6.8. Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest 17
Section 6.9. Restoration of Rights and Remedies 17
Section 6.10. Rights and Remedies Cumulative 18
Section 6.11. Delay or Omission Not Waiver 18
Section 6.12. Control by Holders 18
Section 6.13. Waiver of Past Defaults 18
Section 6.14. Undertaking for Costs 18
ARTICLE VII. TRUSTEE 19
Section 7.1. Duties of Trustee 19
Section 7.2. Rights of Trustee 20
Section 7.3. Individual Rights of Trustee 20
Section 7.4. Trustee’s Disclaimer 21
Section 7.5. Notice of Defaults 21
Section 7.6. Reports by Trustee to Holders 21
Section 7.7. Compensation and Indemnity 21
Section 7.8. Replacement of Trustee 22
Section 7.9. Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc. 22
Section 7.10. Eligibility; Disqualification 22
Section 7.11. Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company 23
ARTICLE VIII. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 23
Section 8.1. Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 23
Section 8.2. Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification 23
Section 8.3. Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series 24
Section 8.4. Covenant Defeasance 25
Section 8.5. Repayment to Company 26
Section 8.6. Reinstatement 26
ARTICLE IX. AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS 26
Section 9.1. Without Consent of Holders 26
Section 9.2. With Consent of Holders 27
Section 9.3. Limitations 27
Section 9.4. Compliance with Trust Indenture Act 28
Section 9.5. Revocation and Effect of Consents 28
Section 9.6. Notation on or Exchange of Securities 28
Section 9.7. Trustee Protected 28
ARTICLE X. MISCELLANEOUS 29
Section 10.1. Trust Indenture Act Controls 29
Section 10.2. Notices 29
Section 10.3. Communication by Holders with Other Holders 29
Section 10.4. Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent 30
Section 10.5. Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion 30
Section 10.6. Rules by Trustee and Agents 30
Section 10.7. Legal Holidays 30
Section 10.8. No Recourse Against Others 30
Section 10.9. Counterparts 30
Section 10.10. Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction 31
Section 10.11. No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements 31
Section 10.12. Successors 31
Section 10.13. Severability 31
Section 10.14. Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. 31
Section 10.15. Securities in a Foreign Currency 31
Section 10.16. Judgment Currency 32
Section 10.17. Force Majeure 32
Section 10.18. U.S.A. Patriot Act 32

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE XI. SINKING FUNDS 33
Section 11.1. Applicability of Article 33
Section 11.2. Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 33
Section 11.3. Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 33

 

CENTURY THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and

Indenture, dated as of [l], 20[l]

§ 310(a)(1)   7.10
(a)(2)   7.10
(a)(3)   Not Applicable
(a)(4)   Not Applicable
(a)(5)   7.10
(b)   7.10
§ 311(a)   7.11
(b)   7.11
(c)   Not Applicable
§ 312(a)   2.6
(b)   10.3
(c)   10.3
§ 313(a)   7.6
(b)(1)   7.6
(b)(2)   7.6
(c)(1)   7.6
(d)   7.6
§ 314(a)   4.2, 10.5
(b)   Not Applicable
(c)(1)   10.4
(c)(2)   10.4
(c)(3)   Not Applicable
(d)   Not Applicable
(e)   10.5
(f)   Not Applicable
§ 315(a)   7.1
(b)   7.5
(c)   7.1
(d)   7.1
(e)   6.14
§ 316(a)   2.10
(a)(1)(A)   6.12
(a)(1)(B)   6.13
(b)   6.8
§ 317(a)(1)   6.3
(a)(2)   6.4
(b)   2.5
§ 318(a)   10.1

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

Indenture dated as of [l], 20[l] between Century Therapeutics, Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware (“Company”), and [l] (“Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.1. Definitions.

 

Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders.

 

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

 

Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.

 

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York, New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment) on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

 

Capital Stock” means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock.

 

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

 

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered.

 

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

 

1

 

 

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

“GAAP” means accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

 

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

 

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

 

Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and any Vice President of the Company.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. The opinion may contain customary limitations, conditions and exceptions.

 

person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

 

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

 

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

 

2

 

 

Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or interest is due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” of any specified person means any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that person or a combination thereof.

 

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

Section 1.2. Other Definitions.

 

    DEFINED IN
TERM   SECTION
Bankruptcy Law   6.1
Custodian   6.1
Event of Default   6.1
Judgment Currency   10.16
Legal Holiday   10.7
mandatory sinking fund payment   11.1
New York Banking Day   10.16
Notice Agent   2.4
optional sinking fund payment   11.1
Paying Agent   2.4
Registrar   2.4
Required Currency   10.16
Specified Courts   10.10
successor person   5.1

 

Section 1.3. Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

3

 

 

Commission” means the SEC.

 

indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

 

“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

Section 1.4. Rules of Construction.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(b) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(c) “or” is not exclusive;

(d) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

(e) provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

ARTICLE II.

THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.1. Issuable in Series.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officer’s Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

Section 2.2. Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

 

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.23) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

 

2.2.1. the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) and ranking (including the terms of any subordination provisions) of the Series;

 

2.2.2. the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

2.2.3. any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6);

 

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2.2.4. the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

2.2.5. the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

2.2.6. the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

2.2.7. if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

2.2.8. the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

2.2.9. the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

2.2.10. if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

2.2.11. the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

 

2.2.12. if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.13. the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

2.2.14. the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

 

2.2.15. if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

2.2.16. the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

2.2.17. the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

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2.2.18. any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.19. any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

2.2.20. any Depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

2.2.21. the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

 

2.2.22. any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series; and

 

2.2.23. whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.

 

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

 

Section 2.3. Execution and Authentication.

 

An Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

 

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

 

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.2) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

 

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents or a committee of Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

 

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The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

Section 2.4. Registrar and Paying Agent.

 

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.2, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered (“Notice Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands; provided, however, that any appointment of the Trustee as the Notice Agent shall exclude the appointment of the Trustee or any office of the Trustee as an agent to receive the service of legal process on the Company.

 

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional notice agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional notice agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “Notice Agent” includes any additional notice agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

Section 2.5. Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

 

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

 

Section 2.6. Securityholder Lists.

 

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

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Section 2.7. Transfer and Exchange.

 

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6).

 

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen days immediately preceding the sending of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day such notice is sent, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

Section 2.8. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon receipt of a Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

 

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 2.9. Outstanding Securities.

 

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.

 

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

 

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If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

 

The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security (but see Section 2.10 below).

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

Section 2.10. Treasury Securities.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

 

Section 2.11. Temporary Securities.

 

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

Section 2.12. Cancellation.

 

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation and shall destroy such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.13. Defaulted Interest.

 

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date.

 

The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least 10 days before the special record date, the Company shall send to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

 

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Section 2.14. Global Securities.

 

2.14.1. Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

 

2.14.2. Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.7 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event or (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

Except as provided in this Section 2.14.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

2.14.3. Legends. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY. THIS SECURITY IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR SECURITIES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE, AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

 

In addition, so long as the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) is the Depositary, each Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“UNLESS THIS GLOBAL NOTE IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORPORATION (“DTC”), TO THE COMPANY OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY GLOBAL NOTE ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF CEDE & CO. OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO CEDE & CO. OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, CEDE & CO., HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.”

 

2.14.4. Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

 

2.14.5. Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

 

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2.14.6. Consents, Declaration and Directions. The Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of such Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Section 2.15. CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.

 

ARTICLE III.

REDEMPTION

 

Section 3.1. Notice to Trustee.

 

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice at least 15 days before the redemption date, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the Trustee.

 

Section 3.2. Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Securities of the Series to be redeemed will be selected as follows: (a) if the Securities are in the form of Global Securities, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary, (b) if the Securities are listed on any national securities exchange, in compliance with the requirements of the principal national securities exchange, if any, on which the Securities are listed, or (c) if not otherwise provided for under clause (a) or (b) in the manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements, subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary. The Securities to be redeemed shall be selected from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. Portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000 may be selected for redemption. Securities of the Series and portions of them it selected for redemption shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2.10, the minimum principal denomination for each Series and the authorized integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

 

Section 3.3. Notice of Redemption.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least 15 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall send or cause to be sent by first-class mail or electronically, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary, a notice of redemption to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

 

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

 

(a) the redemption date;

 

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(b) the redemption price;

 

(c) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

 

(d) if any Securities are being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date and upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original Security shall be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Security;

 

(e) that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

(f) that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date unless the Company defaults in the deposit of the redemption price;

 

(g) the CUSIP number, if any; and

 

(h) any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

 

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least 10 days (unless a shorter time shall be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice.

 

Section 3.4. Effect of Notice of Redemption.

 

Once notice of redemption is sent as provided in Section 3.3, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture, Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate for a Series, a notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date.

 

Section 3.5. Deposit of Redemption Price.

 

On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

 

Section 3.6. Securities Redeemed in Part.

 

Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

 

ARTICLE IV.

COVENANTS

 

Section 4.1. Payment of Principal and Interest.

 

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

 

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Section 4.2. SEC Reports.

 

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after it files them with the SEC copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the SEC may by rules and regulations prescribe) which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of TIA § 314(a). Reports, information and documents filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system will be deemed to be delivered to the Trustee as of the time of such filing via EDGAR for purposes of this Section 4.2.

 

Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 4.2 are for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive or actual notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

 

Section 4.3. Compliance Certificate.

 

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officer’s Certificate stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his/her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which the Officer may have knowledge).

 

Section 4.4. Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

 

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

 

ARTICLE V.

SUCCESSORS

 

Section 5.1. When Company May Merge, Etc.

 

The Company shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

(a) the Company is the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than the Company) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture; and

 

(b) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

 

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Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of the Company may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to the Company. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

 

Section 5.2. Successor Corporation Substituted.

 

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor Company in the case of a sale, conveyance or other disposition (other than a lease) shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

ARTICLE VI.

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

 

Section 6.1. Events of Default.

 

Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

 

(a) default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period); or

 

(b) default in the payment of principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

 

(c) default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of the Company in this Indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraphs (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

(d) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

 

(i) commences a voluntary case,

 

(ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

 

(iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

 

(iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

 

(v) generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

 

(e) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

 

(i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case,

 

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(ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company or for all or substantially all of its property, or

 

(iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

 

(f) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2.18.

 

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means title 11, U.S. Code or any similar Federal or State law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

The Company will provide the Trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take in respect thereof.

 

Section 6.2. Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.1(d) or (e)) then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding Securities shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.

 

At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13.

 

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.3. Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

The Company covenants that if

 

(a) default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

 

(b) default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, or

 

(c) default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, if any, when and as due by the terms of a Security, then, the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the compensation, reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

 

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If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy. 

 

Section 6.4. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

 

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

 

(a) to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the compensation, reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

 

(b) to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same, and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the compensation, reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

 

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.5. Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

 

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the compensation, reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

 

Section 6.6. Application of Money Collected.

 

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

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First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7; and

 

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

 

Third: To the Company.

 

Section 6.7. Limitation on Suits.

 

No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless

 

(a) such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

 

(b) the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

(c) such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by the Trustee in compliance with such request;

 

(d) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

 

(e) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series; it being understood, intended and expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders of the applicable Series.

 

Section 6.8. Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

 

Section 6.9. Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

 

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

 

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Section 6.10. Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

 

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.8, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

Section 6.11. Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

 

Section 6.12. Control by Holders.

 

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that

 

(a) such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

 

(b) the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction,

 

(c) subject to the provisions of Section 7.1, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability, and

 

(d) prior to taking any action as directed under this Section 6.12, the Trustee shall be entitled to indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

Section 6.13. Waiver of Past Defaults.

 

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series, by written notice to the Trustee and the Company, waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.14. Undertaking for Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

 

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ARTICLE VII.

TRUSTEE

Section 7.1. Duties of Trustee.

 

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

 

(i) The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others.

 

(ii) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the form requirements of this Indenture.

 

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section.

 

(ii) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

 

(iii) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series in accordance with Section 6.12.

 

(d) Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.

 

(e) The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power.

 

(f) The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

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(g) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if adequate indemnity against such risk is not assured to the Trustee in its satisfaction.

 

(h) The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections and immunities as are set forth in paragraphs (e), (f) and (g) of this Section and in Section 7.2, each with respect to the Trustee.

 

Section 7.2. Rights of Trustee.

 

(a) The Trustee may rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document (whether in its original or facsimile form) believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

 

(b) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officer’s